Speed and endurance are doled out by the pound Rice researchers find

first_imgShareCONTACT: Jennifer Evans PHONE: 713-348-6777 E-MAIL: [email protected] Speed and endurance are doled out by the pound, Rice researchers find Body mass index proves to be an unexpectedly valuable tool for runners The conspicuous size differences between beefy sprinters and lithesome distance runners are dictated by simple rules of form and function, according to researchers from Rice University and the Texas Medical Center’s National Center for Human Performance. Specifically, the greater bulk of speed demons is explained by their need to hit the running surface harder to attain their faster speeds. Details of the findings linking the speed a runner needs to achieve and the ideal body mass for performance appear in the July 15 issue of the Journal of Experimental Biology in a study authored by Peter Weyand and Adam Davis. “We found that regardless of the runner’s race specialization or gender, we could link an ideal body mass for running performance to how hard a runner needed to hit the ground,” said Peter Weyand, assistant professor in kinesiology and lead author of the study. “The mechanical requirements of running and racing at different speeds are related to the notable differences in body types long-observed among specialized track athletes — and even among animal runners in nature.” Previously, scientists and others considered massiveness in any form to be disadvantageous for running performance. This idea was based on studies of distance runners and studies of the limited running abilities of elephants and big dinosaurs. However, Weyand and Davis found the trade-offs involved in specialization for speed versus endurance conform to precise body-mass rules. Their research provides a new twist on an old metric: the body mass index, or BMI, which measures body size based on a person’s height and weight. BMI has long been used as a guide on body sizes to be avoided. However, Weyand and Davis unexpectedly discovered that this same index can guide some athletes toward body sizes that will optimize their performance. In the study, Weyand and Davis, a recent Rice University graduate, found the ideal massiveness for running performance was provided by a constant relationship between the BMI and the force the runners need to apply to the ground at their racing speeds. A practical implication of this finding for runners is that for the amount of ground force required for any race, an ideal BMI exists. To establish how much ground force was required for different running and racing speeds, Weyand and Davis measured how hard runners hit the surface of a treadmill at different running speeds. Men and women alike hit with forces of about one-and-a-half times their body weight at slower speeds and with as much as two-and-a-half times their body weight at a sprint. The researchers established an “ideal” body size for each race distance by compiling the average heights and weights of the world’s fastest 45 male and female runners in each of the eight competitive racing distances, from 100 meters to 10,000 meters, during the past 14 years. As they related the force required for the runners’ racing speeds to the “ideal” size of the different runners, the researchers found a consistent relationship across all groups. Whether an athlete is male or female, a sprinter, a middle-distance or an endurance runner, the ideal massiveness for running was the same function of how much force the runners needed to apply to the ground at their racing speeds. The specific amount of body mass that they found was needed to regulate ground forces and racing speeds was relatively small: only 2.5 kg of mass per one meter per second of racing speed for males and 1.8 kg per one meter per second for females. “The results provided powerful support for a basic conclusion,” Weyand said. “Sprinters have more muscle and body bulk because they need to hit the track harder to attain their blazing speeds. In contrast, endurance specialists do not want or need bulky muscles because the ground forces required at their slower speeds are so modest.” Weyand noted further testing is needed to determine how appropriate BMI guidelines might be for individuals or any given individual athlete. AddThislast_img read more

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GMAT Scores International Students Jump at NYU Stern

center_img About the AuthorJonathan PfefferJonathan Pfeffer joined the Clear Admit and MetroMBA teams in 2015 after spending several years as an arts/culture writer, editor, and radio producer. In addition to his role as contributing writer at MetroMBA and contributing editor at Clear Admit, he is co-founder and lead producer of the Clear Admit MBA Admissions Podcast. He holds a BA in Film/Video, Ethnomusicology, and Media Studies from Oberlin College.View more posts by Jonathan Pfeffer Last week, the NYU Stern School of Business shared a preliminary profile of its Class of 2020. Even amid some declines, the school showed gains in the diversity of its class and added a few points to the average GMAT score for incoming students.This year saw 3,781 applicants—down from 3,927 for the Class of 2019. Among the new applicants, 876 were admitted (23 percent) and a total of 375 enrolled. Last year, 822 applicants were admitted (21 percent), yielding 402 enrolled students.Although the percentage of female students dropped slightly from the previous year (38 to 35 percent), the Class of 2020 is more global than the Class of 2019. International students increased from 37 percent last year to 39 percent, even as overall international MBA application volume to U.S. schools faltered. “International applications were down about 10 percent this year, but they still represent about half of total applications, so we had a very strong pool of applications from which to admit,” an NYU spokesperson says.The percentage of minority students held steady at 29 percent—the same as the previous year. But of those, 13 percent this year are underrepresented minorities (U.S. citizens and permanent residents who identify as African American/Black, Hispanic, or Native American/Alaskan Native), up 2 percentage points over the Class of 2019.The average GMAT score for incoming students this year increased to 717—a three-point gain over the previous class. However, the median GMAT maintained the same score as the previous class, sitting at 720. At the same time, applicants opting to submit GRE scores instead of GMAT scores jumped from 12 to 19 percent, while the average GPA slipped slightly from 3.48 to 3.45.The NYU Stern Class of 2020 sported a 717 GMAT average; three points higher than the previous class.The Class of 2020 has a diverse educational background. Approximately 29 percent of students studied business as undergrads, more than any other major. Another 20 percent of the incoming class have degrees in engineering, math, and science. Economics, humanities, and social sciences majors make up the rest of the class, totaling 18 percent, 17 percent, and 16 percent, respectively.Stern also continued its efforts to recruit military veterans and active duty service members, including through the Fertitta Veterans Program. Now in its second year, the program underwrites more than half of the tuition bill for approximately 20 incoming students annually. Veterans and active duty service members comprise 7 percent of the Class of 2020, similar to last year.The average work experience among incoming students increased from 4.9 years for the Class of 2019 to to 5.3 years this year. More than a quarter—26 percent—of the Class of 2020 comes in with previous experience working in financial services, and another 13 percent come from consulting. The three next largest feeder industries are technology, entertainment/media, and military/government, making up 9 percent, 7 percent, and 7 percent, respectively. With regard to post-MBA career aspirations, members of the Class of 2020 are increasingly interested in consulting, technology, entrepreneurship, and healthcare.Click here or more information on the NYU Stern Class of 2020.This article has been edited and republished with permissions from our sister site, Clear Admit.last_img read more

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