The molecular evolution of spiggin nesting glue in sticklebacks

first_imgGene duplication and subsequent divergence can lead to the evolution of new functions and lineage specific traits. In sticklebacks, the successive duplication of the mucin-like gene (MUC19) into a tandemly-arrayed, multi-gene family has enabled the production of copious amounts of ‘spiggin’, a secreted adhesive protein essential for nest construction. Here we examine divergence between spiggin genes among three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from ancestral marine and derived freshwater populations, and propose underpinning gene duplication mechanisms. Sanger sequencing revealed substantial diversity among spiggin transcripts, including alternatively spliced variants and interchromosomal spiggin chimeric genes. Comparative analysis of the sequenced transcripts and all other spiggin genes in the public domain support the presence of three main spiggin lineages (spiggin A, spiggin B and spiggin C) with further subdivisions within spiggin B (B1, B2) and spiggin C (C1, C2). Spiggin A had diverged least from the ancestral MUC19, while the spiggin C duplicates had diversified most substantially. In silico translations of the spiggin gene open reading frames predicted that spiggin A and B are secreted as long mucin-like polymers, while spiggin C1 and C2 are secreted as short monomers, with putative anti-microbial properties. We propose that diversification of duplicated spiggin genes has facilitated local adaptation of spiggin to a range of aquatic habitats.last_img read more

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How to save if you live paycheck to paycheck

first_img 34SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr You know you need to save money, but it can be hard if you’re just trying to make ends meet on a small income. After all, you have bills to pay today, so it’s hard to make saving for tomorrow a priority.Even higher-income people can find themselves living paycheck to paycheck without much room in their budget to set aside cash. “Most people don’t start saving for retirement or short-term goals because they think they don’t have enough money,” said Brandon Hayes, vice president of financial planning firm oXYGen Financial. But that couldn’t be further from the truth, he said.Despite what you might think, it is possible to save even when you’re strapped for cash. Even a small amount is better than nothing, Hayes said. Here’s how to get started. continue reading »last_img read more

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